TABLE OF CONTENTS

NAME

Mojolicious::Controller - Controller base class

SYNOPSIS

# Controller
package MyApp::Foo;
use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious::Controller';

# Action
sub bar {
  my $self = shift;
  my $name = $self->param('name');
  $self->res->headers->cache_control('max-age=1, no-cache');
  $self->render(json => {hello => $name});
}

DESCRIPTION

Mojolicious::Controller is the base class for your Mojolicious controllers. It is also the default controller class unless you set "controller_class" in Mojolicious.

ATTRIBUTES

Mojolicious::Controller inherits all attributes from Mojo::Base and implements the following new ones.

app

my $app = $c->app;
$c      = $c->app(Mojolicious->new);

A reference back to the application that dispatched to this controller, defaults to a Mojolicious object.

# Use application logger
$c->app->log->debug('Hello Mojo!');

# Generate path
my $path = $c->app->home->rel_file('templates/foo/bar.html.ep');

match

my $m = $c->match;
$c    = $c->match(Mojolicious::Routes::Match->new);

Router results for the current request, defaults to a Mojolicious::Routes::Match object.

# Introspect
my $foo = $c->match->endpoint->pattern->defaults->{foo};
my $bar = $c->match->stack->[-1]{bar};

tx

my $tx = $c->tx;
$c     = $c->tx(Mojo::Transaction::HTTP->new);

The transaction that is currently being processed, usually a Mojo::Transaction::HTTP or Mojo::Transaction::WebSocket object. Note that this reference is usually weakened, so the object needs to be referenced elsewhere as well when you're performing non-blocking operations and the underlying connection might get closed early.

# Check peer information
my $address = $c->tx->remote_address;
my $port    = $c->tx->remote_port;

# Perform non-blocking operation without knowing the connection status
my $tx = $c->tx;
Mojo::IOLoop->timer(2 => sub {
  $c->app->log->debug($tx->is_finished ? 'Finished.' : 'In progress.');
});

METHODS

Mojolicious::Controller inherits all methods from Mojo::Base and implements the following new ones.

continue

$c->continue;

Continue dispatch chain with "continue" in Mojolicious::Routes.

cookie

my $value  = $c->cookie('foo');
my @values = $c->cookie('foo');
$c         = $c->cookie(foo => 'bar');
$c         = $c->cookie(foo => 'bar', {path => '/'});

Access request cookie values and create new response cookies.

# Create response cookie with domain and expiration date
$c->cookie(user => 'sri', {domain => 'example.com', expires => time + 60});

finish

$c = $c->finish;
$c = $c->finish(1000);
$c = $c->finish(1003 => 'Cannot accept data!');
$c = $c->finish('Bye!');

Close WebSocket connection or long poll stream gracefully.

flash

my $foo = $c->flash('foo');
$c      = $c->flash({foo => 'bar'});
$c      = $c->flash(foo => 'bar');

Data storage persistent only for the next request, stored in the "session".

# Show message after redirect
$c->flash(message => 'User created successfully!');
$c->redirect_to('show_user', id => 23);

on

my $cb = $c->on(finish => sub {...});

Subscribe to events of "tx", which is usually a Mojo::Transaction::HTTP or Mojo::Transaction::WebSocket object. Note that this method will automatically respond to WebSocket handshake requests with a 101 response status.

# Do something after the transaction has been finished
$c->on(finish => sub {
  my $c = shift;
  $c->app->log->debug('We are done!');
});

# Receive WebSocket message
$c->on(message => sub {
  my ($c, $msg) = @_;
  $c->app->log->debug("Message: $msg");
});

# Receive JSON object via WebSocket message
$c->on(json => sub {
  my ($c, $hash) = @_;
  $c->app->log->debug("Test: $hash->{test}");
});

# Receive WebSocket "Binary" message
$c->on(binary => sub {
  my ($c, $bytes) = @_;
  my $len = length $bytes;
  $c->app->log->debug("Received $len bytes.");
});

param

my @names       = $c->param;
my $foo         = $c->param('foo');
my @foo         = $c->param('foo');
my ($foo, $bar) = $c->param(['foo', 'bar']);
$c              = $c->param(foo => 'ba;r');
$c              = $c->param(foo => qw(ba;r ba;z));

Access route placeholder values that are not reserved stash values, file uploads and GET/POST parameters, in that order. Note that this method is context sensitive in some cases and therefore needs to be used with care, there can always be multiple values, which might have unexpected consequences. Parts of the request body need to be loaded into memory to parse POST parameters, so you have to make sure it is not excessively large, there's a 10MB limit by default.

# List context is ambiguous and should be avoided, you can get multiple
# values returned for a query string like "?foo=bar&foo=baz&foo=yada"
my $hash = {foo => $self->param('foo')};

# Better enforce scalar context
my $hash = {foo => scalar $self->param('foo')};

# The multi-name form can also be used to enforce scalar context
my $hash = {foo => $self->param(['foo'])};

For more control you can also access request information directly.

# Only GET parameters
my $foo = $c->req->url->query->param('foo');

# Only POST parameters
my $foo = $c->req->body_params->param('foo');

# Only GET and POST parameters
my $foo = $c->req->param('foo');

# Only file uploads
my $foo = $c->req->upload('foo');

redirect_to

$c = $c->redirect_to('named', foo => 'bar');
$c = $c->redirect_to('named', {foo => 'bar'});
$c = $c->redirect_to('/perldoc');
$c = $c->redirect_to('http://mojolicio.us/perldoc');

Prepare a 302 redirect response, takes the same arguments as "url_for".

# Moved permanently
$c->res->code(301);
$c->redirect_to('some_route');

render

my $bool   = $c->render;
my $bool   = $c->render(controller => 'foo', action => 'bar');
my $bool   = $c->render(template => 'foo/index');
my $bool   = $c->render(template => 'index', format => 'html');
my $bool   = $c->render(data => $bytes);
my $bool   = $c->render(text => 'Hello!');
my $bool   = $c->render(json => {foo => 'bar'});
my $bool   = $c->render(handler => 'something');
my $bool   = $c->render('foo/index');
my $output = $c->render('foo/index', partial => 1);

Render content using "render" in Mojolicious::Renderer and emit hooks "before_render" in Mojolicious as well as "after_render" in Mojolicious if the result is not partial. If no template is provided a default one based on controller and action or route name will be generated with "template_for" in Mojolicious::Renderer, all additional values get merged into the "stash".

# Render characters
$c->render(text => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!');

# Render binary data
use Mojo::JSON 'encode_json';
$c->render(data => encode_json({test => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!'}));

# Render JSON
$c->render(json => {test => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!'});

# Render template "foo/bar.html.ep"
$c->render(template => 'foo/bar', format => 'html', handler => 'ep');

# Render template "foo/bar.*.*"
$c->render(template => 'foo/bar');

# Render template "test.xml.*"
$c->render('test', format => 'xml');

render_exception

$c = $c->render_exception('Oops!');
$c = $c->render_exception(Mojo::Exception->new('Oops!'));

Render the exception template exception.$mode.$format.* or exception.$format.* and set the response status code to 500. Also sets the stash values exception to a Mojo::Exception object and snapshot to a copy of the "stash" for use in the templates.

render_later

$c = $c->render_later;

Disable automatic rendering to delay response generation, only necessary if automatic rendering would result in a response.

# Delayed rendering
$c->render_later;
Mojo::IOLoop->timer(2 => sub {
  $c->render(text => 'Delayed by 2 seconds!');
});

render_maybe

my $bool = $c->render_maybe;
my $bool = $c->render_maybe(controller => 'foo', action => 'bar');
my $bool = $c->render_maybe('foo/index', format => 'html');

Try to render content but do not call "render_not_found" if no response could be generated, takes the same arguments as "render".

# Render template "index_local" only if it exists
$self->render_maybe('index_local') or $self->render('index');

render_not_found

$c = $c->render_not_found;

Render the not found template not_found.$mode.$format.* or not_found.$format.* and set the response status code to 404. Also sets the stash value snapshot to a copy of the "stash" for use in the templates.

render_static

my $bool = $c->render_static('images/logo.png');
my $bool = $c->render_static('../lib/MyApp.pm');

Render a static file using "serve" in Mojolicious::Static, usually from the public directories or DATA sections of your application. Note that this method does not protect from traversing to parent directories.

rendered

$c = $c->rendered;
$c = $c->rendered(302);

Finalize response and emit hook "after_dispatch" in Mojolicious, defaults to using a 200 response code.

# Custom response
$self->res->headers->content_type('text/plain');
$self->res->body('Hello World!');
$self->rendered(200);

# Accept WebSocket handshake without subscribing to an event
$self->rendered(101);

req

my $req = $c->req;

Get Mojo::Message::Request object from "req" in Mojo::Transaction.

# Longer version
my $req = $c->tx->req;

# Extract request information
my $url   = $c->req->url->to_abs;
my $info  = $c->req->url->to_abs->userinfo;
my $host  = $c->req->url->to_abs->host;
my $agent = $c->req->headers->user_agent;
my $bytes = $c->req->body;
my $str   = $c->req->text;
my $hash  = $c->req->params->to_hash;
my $value = $c->req->json;
my $foo   = $c->req->json('/23/foo');
my $dom   = $c->req->dom;
my $bar   = $c->req->dom('div.bar')->first->text;

res

my $res = $c->res;

Get Mojo::Message::Response object from "res" in Mojo::Transaction.

# Longer version
my $res = $c->tx->res;

# Force file download by setting a custom response header
$c->res->headers->content_disposition('attachment; filename=foo.png;');

respond_to

$c = $c->respond_to(
  json => {json => {message => 'Welcome!'}},
  html => {template => 'welcome'},
  any  => sub {...}
);

Automatically select best possible representation for resource from Accept request header, format stash value or format GET/POST parameter, defaults to rendering an empty 204 response. Since browsers often don't really know what they actually want, unspecific Accept request headers with more than one MIME type will be ignored, unless the X-Requested-With header is set to the value XMLHttpRequest.

$c->respond_to(
  json => sub { $c->render(json => {just => 'works'}) },
  xml  => {text => '<just>works</just>'},
  any  => {data => '', status => 204}
);

For more advanced negotiation logic you can also use the helper "accepts" in Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers.

send

$c = $c->send({binary => $bytes});
$c = $c->send({text   => $bytes});
$c = $c->send({json   => {test => [1, 2, 3]}});
$c = $c->send([$fin, $rsv1, $rsv2, $rsv3, $op, $payload]);
$c = $c->send($chars);
$c = $c->send($chars => sub {...});

Send message or frame non-blocking via WebSocket, the optional drain callback will be invoked once all data has been written. Note that this method will automatically respond to WebSocket handshake requests with a 101 response status.

# Send "Text" message
$c->send('I ♥ Mojolicious!');

# Send JSON object as "Text" message
$c->send({json => {test => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!'}});

# Send JSON object as "Binary" message
use Mojo::JSON 'encode_json';
$c->send({binary => encode_json({test => 'I ♥ Mojolicious!'})});

# Send "Ping" frame
$c->send([1, 0, 0, 0, 9, 'Hello World!']);

# Make sure previous message has been written before continuing
$c->send('First message!' => sub {
  my $c = shift;
  $c->send('Second message!');
});

For mostly idle WebSockets you might also want to increase the inactivity timeout, which usually defaults to 15 seconds.

# Increase inactivity timeout for connection to 300 seconds
Mojo::IOLoop->stream($c->tx->connection)->timeout(300);

session

my $session = $c->session;
my $foo     = $c->session('foo');
$c          = $c->session({foo => 'bar'});
$c          = $c->session(foo => 'bar');

Persistent data storage for the next few requests, all session data gets serialized with Mojo::JSON and stored Base64 encoded in HMAC-SHA1 signed cookies. Note that cookies usually have a 4096 byte limit, depending on browser.

# Manipulate session
$c->session->{foo} = 'bar';
my $foo = $c->session->{foo};
delete $c->session->{foo};

# Expiration date in seconds from now (persists between requests)
$c->session(expiration => 604800);

# Expiration date as absolute epoch time (only valid for one request)
$c->session(expires => time + 604800);

# Delete whole session by setting an expiration date in the past
$c->session(expires => 1);

signed_cookie

my $value  = $c->signed_cookie('foo');
my @values = $c->signed_cookie('foo');
$c         = $c->signed_cookie(foo => 'bar');
$c         = $c->signed_cookie(foo => 'bar', {path => '/'});

Access signed request cookie values and create new signed response cookies. Cookies failing HMAC-SHA1 signature verification will be automatically discarded.

stash

my $hash = $c->stash;
my $foo  = $c->stash('foo');
$c       = $c->stash({foo => 'bar'});
$c       = $c->stash(foo => 'bar');

Non-persistent data storage and exchange for the current request, application wide default values can be set with "defaults" in Mojolicious. Some stash values have a special meaning and are reserved, the full list is currently action, app, cb, controller, data, extends, format, handler, json, layout, namespace, partial, path, status, template, text and variant. Note that all stash values with a mojo.* prefix are reserved for internal use.

# Remove value
my $foo = delete $c->stash->{foo};

url_for

my $url = $c->url_for;
my $url = $c->url_for(name => 'sebastian');
my $url = $c->url_for({name => 'sebastian'});
my $url = $c->url_for('test', name => 'sebastian');
my $url = $c->url_for('test', {name => 'sebastian'});
my $url = $c->url_for('/perldoc');
my $url = $c->url_for('//mojolicio.us/perldoc');
my $url = $c->url_for('http://mojolicio.us/perldoc');
my $url = $c->url_for('mailto:sri@example.com');

Generate a portable Mojo::URL object with base for a path, URL or route.

# "http://127.0.0.1:3000/perldoc" if application has been started with Morbo
$c->url_for('/perldoc')->to_abs;

# "/perldoc?foo=bar" if application is deployed under "/"
$c->url_for('/perldoc')->query(foo => 'bar');

# "/myapp/perldoc?foo=bar" if application is deployed under "/myapp"
$c->url_for('/perldoc')->query(foo => 'bar');

You can also use the helper "url_with" in Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers to inherit query parameters from the current request.

# "/list?q=mojo&page=2" if current request was for "/list?q=mojo&page=1"
$c->url_with->query([page => 2]);

validation

my $validation = $c->validation;

Get Mojolicious::Validator::Validation object for current request to validate GET/POST parameters. Parts of the request body need to be loaded into memory to parse POST parameters, so you have to make sure it is not excessively large, there's a 10MB limit by default.

my $validation = $c->validation;
$validation->required('title')->size(3, 50);
my $title = $validation->param('title');

write

$c = $c->write;
$c = $c->write($bytes);
$c = $c->write(sub {...});
$c = $c->write($bytes => sub {...});

Write dynamic content non-blocking, the optional drain callback will be invoked once all data has been written.

# Keep connection alive (with Content-Length header)
$c->res->headers->content_length(6);
$c->write('Hel' => sub {
  my $c = shift;
  $c->write('lo!')
});

# Close connection when finished (without Content-Length header)
$c->write('Hel' => sub {
  my $c = shift;
  $c->write('lo!' => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->finish;
  });
});

For Comet (long polling) you might also want to increase the inactivity timeout, which usually defaults to 15 seconds.

# Increase inactivity timeout for connection to 300 seconds
Mojo::IOLoop->stream($c->tx->connection)->timeout(300);

write_chunk

$c = $c->write_chunk;
$c = $c->write_chunk($bytes);
$c = $c->write_chunk(sub {...});
$c = $c->write_chunk($bytes => sub {...});

Write dynamic content non-blocking with chunked transfer encoding, the optional drain callback will be invoked once all data has been written.

# Make sure previous chunk has been written before continuing
$c->write_chunk('He' => sub {
  my $c = shift;
  $c->write_chunk('ll' => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->finish('o!');
  });
});

You can call "finish" at any time to end the stream.

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AUTOLOAD

In addition to the "ATTRIBUTES" and "METHODS" above you can also call helpers provided by "app" on Mojolicious::Controller objects. This includes all helpers from Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers and Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers.

$c->layout('green');
$c->title('Welcome!');

SEE ALSO

Mojolicious, Mojolicious::Guides, http://mojolicio.us.